寺院醸造の歴史

日本酒。米からできた日本を代表するお酒。中世の日本。奈良は興福寺の『多聞院日記』や『経覚私要抄』にも記されるように、国家が建造した大寺院が寺院醸造の役割を担っていました。海外の醸造酒、ワインやビール、シャンパーニュなどもそれぞれの文化圏の中世の寺院醸造の中でその品質を飛躍的に高めてまいります。かつて我が国でも寺院醸造が盛んに行われ、それがなぜその後衰退したか。寺院醸造の歴史を紐解きます。

History of Temple Brewing

Sake. The national drink of Japan made from rice. At one point in its history, Japanese sake was brewed in temples. In medieval Nara, as recorded in the "Tamonin Nikki" (Diary of Tamonin) and the “Kyokaku Shiyosho” (diary of the priest Kyokaku) of Kofuku-ji Temple, large temples built by the state were responsible for temple brewing. Meanwhile, during this same period, overseas, wine, beer, champagne and other fermented beverages brewed in medieval abbeys and monasteries witnessed dramatic improvements in quality.

Why then did temple brewing in Japan, which had also spread so rapidly once upon a time, undergo a decline thereafter? Here we seek to answer this question as we unravel the history of temple brewing in Japan.

菩提酛とは

日本最古の酒母と言われる菩提酛。その名前の起源は菩提山正暦寺でその技術が確立したからだと考えられています。菩提山正暦寺が寺院醸造の中心的役割を担い、酒母という概念を確立したことが、この地が日本清酒発祥の地と言われる所以です。菩提酛のプロセスの特徴やその誕生秘話を解き明かします。

What is Bodaimoto?

“Bodaimoto” is said to be Japan’s oldest method for preparing a “shubo” (yeast starter). The name Bodaimoto comes from the name of the temple “Bodaisen Shoryaku-ji” where the technique is thought to have become established. Bodaisen Shoryaku-ji played a central role in temple brewing and is where the concept of “shubo” (yeast starter) became established. It is for this reason the area is considered to be the birthplace of Japanese refined sake.

We will now explain the characteristics of the Bodaimoto preparation process and reveal the untold story of its origins.

奈良県菩提酛による清酒製造研究会について

平成8年に奈良県内の当時の若手蔵元の有志が集まり、『奈良県 菩提酛による清酒製造研究会』(菩提研)を設立。菩提酛の造り方や資料の研究から始まり、菩提山正暦寺と奈良県工業技術センター(現・奈良県産業振興総合センター)とともに菩提酛のお寺での酒造りの再現復活を主導しました。平成10年(1998)12月11日についに酒母製造免許が下り、寺院醸造を復活。現在に至るまで20年以上、毎年共同で『菩提酛』を造り続けています。

Sake Research Group focused on Bodaimoto

In 1996, young volunteers from breweries in Nara Prefecture got together and established a research group called the “Naraken Bodaimoto ni yoru Seishu Seizou Kenkyukai” (which translates as “Bodaimoto-focused Refined Sake Production Research Group of Nara Prefecture”) or Bodai-ken, for short. After researching into how to make Bodaimoto and various materials and documents, with cooperation from Bodaisen Shoryaku-ji Temple and the Nara Prefectural Institute of Industrial Technology (now the Nara Prefectural Institute of Industrial Development), they initiated the revival of Bodaimoto sake brewing at Bodaisen Shoryaku-ji Temple.

 

菩提泉とは

日本初の民間の醸造技術書『御酒之日記』。正平10年(1335)もしくは長享元年(1487)に書かれたと言われるこの書物の中に初めて菩提山正暦寺の酒造りが描かれています。その酒の名は『菩提泉』。甕で仕込み、段仕込みを行わない現在の日本酒のご先祖様。このお酒造りの手法が酒母という形に進化を遂げ菩提酛として広く知られていきます。菩提研ではこの『菩提泉』を正暦寺において2021年復活醸造いたしました。

What is Bodaisen?

The “Goshu no Nikki” is Japan’s first technical book on sake brewing written by ordinary citizens. Said to have been written in 1335 or 1487, this book contains the first descriptions of sake brewing at Bodaisen Shoryaku-ji.

The sake made was called “Bodaisen”. Made in kame jars, and not in stages, it is a predecessor to modern-day sake (which is made in a three-stage process). The process for making this sake evolved into a shubo making process which came to be widely known as “Bodaimoto”. The Bodai-ken research group revived “Bodaisen” brewing at Shoryaku-ji Temple in 2021.